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नैनीताल का इतिहास

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नैनीताल इंडिया के टॉप 5 टूरिस्ट डेस्टिनेशन मे से एक हैं | स्कंद पुराण के मानस खण्ड में नैनीताल एक ताल है जिसे त्रि-ऋषि सरोवर कहा जाता था। यहाँ तीन ऋषियों की एक प्रसिद्ध कथा है। ये ऋषि थे-अत्रि, पुलस्त्य और पुलह। जब इन तीन ऋषिओ को नैनीताल में कहीं जल नहीं मिला तो उन्होंने एक गडढा खोदा और उसे तिब्बत की मानसरोवर झील के जल से भरा। जनश्रुति के अनुसार जो भी मनुषय नैनीताल की इस झील में डुबकी लगाता है उसे मानसरोवर के बराबर पुण्य मिलता है।

ऐसा माना जाता है कि नैनीताल 64 शक्तिपीठो में से एक है। कहा जाता है क़ि जब भगवान शिव देवी सती के शव को ले जा रहे थे। तब देवी सती की आँख यहाँ गिरी थी इसलिए इस स्थान का नाम नैन-ताल पड़ गया। बाद में इसे नैनीताल कहा जाने लगा। आज नैना देवी के मंदिर में देवी सती के शक्ति रूप की पूजा होती है।

नैनीताल की खोज 1841 में एक ब्रिटिश व्यापारी, P. Barron, जो शाहजहांपुर में चीनी व्यापारी था, ट्रेक करते हुए यहाँ आये, और उन्होंने यहाँ – पिलग्रिम लॉज (नैनीताल में पहला यूरोपियन शैली का भवन) की स्थापना की। माना जाता है – कि इस ब्रिटिश व्यापारी P. Barron ने नैनीताल शहर की नीव डाली। अपने संस्मरण में वो लिखते हैं।

“हिमालय में 1,500 मील (2,400 किमी) ट्रेक के दौरान मैंने , अपनी जीवन की-सबसे खूबसूरत जगह को देखा।”

1846 में कैप्टेन मैडन, और धीरे धीरे दुसरे अग्रेज सरकार के अधिकारी और सैनिक – यहाँ आने लगे, जिन्होंने यहाँ कई यूरोपियन स्थापत्य कला की इमारते और भवन बनाये, जो आज भी यहाँ देखी जा सकती हैं, और फिर यह जगह अग्रेज अधिकारीयों और सैनिको का यह शहर पसंदीदा हेल्थ रिसोर्ट बन गया, जहाँ वो हर वर्ष गर्मियों में आते.

मजे क़ि बात तो यह हैं की भीमताल और नौकुचियताल को 1782-1840 के मध्य खोजा जा चूका था |
नैनीताल मे 18 सितम्बर 1880 मे एक भयानक भूस्खलन हुआ | यह भूस्खलन इतना जबरदस्त था जिसमे 151 लोग दबकर मर गए | इस भूस्खलन के कारण नैना देवी मंदिर भी छतिग्रस्त हो गया था | बाद मे फिर नैना देवी मंदिर नए तरीके से बनवाया गया | 1860 के मध्य तक कुछ स्कूलों का भी निर्माण करवाया गया जिसमे आल सेंट, सेंट जोजेफ आदि प्रमुख थे | और 1906 के मध्य तक हाईकोट तथा शेरवुड कॉलेज बन गए थे | अंग्रेजो को नैनीताल इतना पसंद था की वो इसे स्विट्ज़रलैंड के समान मानते थे |

2001 से पहले नैनीताल को छोटी विलायत भी कहते थे | जब 9 नवंबर 2000 को उत्तराखंड उत्तरप्रदेश से अलग हुआ तब नैनीताल मे हाईकोट बना | यहाँ आर्यभट्ट रिसर्च इंस्टिट्यूट भी है जिसे ARES के नाम से जानते हैं |

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